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The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing

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The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing. / Kaappa, Emma Sofia; Joutsen, Atte; Cömert, Alper; Vanhala, Jukka.

In: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. 21, No. 1, 02.2017, p. 59-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Kaappa, ES, Joutsen, A, Cömert, A & Vanhala, J 2017, 'The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing', Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-04-2016-0007

APA

Vancouver

Author

Kaappa, Emma Sofia ; Joutsen, Atte ; Cömert, Alper ; Vanhala, Jukka. / The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing. In: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel. 2017 ; Vol. 21, No. 1. pp. 59-71.

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@article{8db7c1a57c3e48fabaed0535a9f6cc77,
title = "The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing",
abstract = "PurposeThe purpose of this research was to offer more reliable dry electrode materials for long-term measuring and determine how repeated machine washing affects the measured impedance and surface resistance of the sample electrodes. The aim was to manufacture electrodes that could be used for the measurement of ECG. Skin friendly, metal sheet type, electrodes could be a solution.Design/methodology/approachIn addition to two conventional electrodes already used in heart rate belts, the authors prepared and tested three different sheet metal electrodes. Three 20 mm diameter electrodes were manufactured from the following materials: silvered knit, conductive polymer, stainless steel, silver and platinum. Electrode Impedance was measured at seven frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, by placing two electrodes face-to-face. Measurements were done on unused electrodes and after multiple machine washes at 40°C.FindingsAnalysis of the measurements indicates that with every material tested the impedances are elevated after repeated washes. All metallic materials have impedances in the range of 0.01 to 4.5Ω. Metal sheet electrodes can be integrated comfortably into the textile and they endure textile maintenance without loss of electrical properties.Practical implicationsMetal sheet electrodes function well in long-term vital signs monitoring, they provide a reliable signal and they are resistant to maintenance. For the reasons described in this research they can be used as a long-term wearable sensor.Originality/valueNovel electrode material for long-term measuring research is important in many disciplines such as healthcare and apparel manufacturing. These findings suggest that pure metal electrodes are better than conductive textiles in long-term measuring.",
keywords = "Electrode, ECG, Wearable, washing, Steel",
author = "Kaappa, {Emma Sofia} and Atte Joutsen and Alper C{\"o}mert and Jukka Vanhala",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1108/RJTA-04-2016-0007",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "59--71",
journal = "Research Journal of Textile and Apparel",
issn = "1560-6074",
publisher = "Emerald",
number = "1",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The electrical impedance measurements of dry electrode materials for the ECG measuring after repeated washing

AU - Kaappa, Emma Sofia

AU - Joutsen, Atte

AU - Cömert, Alper

AU - Vanhala, Jukka

PY - 2017/2

Y1 - 2017/2

N2 - PurposeThe purpose of this research was to offer more reliable dry electrode materials for long-term measuring and determine how repeated machine washing affects the measured impedance and surface resistance of the sample electrodes. The aim was to manufacture electrodes that could be used for the measurement of ECG. Skin friendly, metal sheet type, electrodes could be a solution.Design/methodology/approachIn addition to two conventional electrodes already used in heart rate belts, the authors prepared and tested three different sheet metal electrodes. Three 20 mm diameter electrodes were manufactured from the following materials: silvered knit, conductive polymer, stainless steel, silver and platinum. Electrode Impedance was measured at seven frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, by placing two electrodes face-to-face. Measurements were done on unused electrodes and after multiple machine washes at 40°C.FindingsAnalysis of the measurements indicates that with every material tested the impedances are elevated after repeated washes. All metallic materials have impedances in the range of 0.01 to 4.5Ω. Metal sheet electrodes can be integrated comfortably into the textile and they endure textile maintenance without loss of electrical properties.Practical implicationsMetal sheet electrodes function well in long-term vital signs monitoring, they provide a reliable signal and they are resistant to maintenance. For the reasons described in this research they can be used as a long-term wearable sensor.Originality/valueNovel electrode material for long-term measuring research is important in many disciplines such as healthcare and apparel manufacturing. These findings suggest that pure metal electrodes are better than conductive textiles in long-term measuring.

AB - PurposeThe purpose of this research was to offer more reliable dry electrode materials for long-term measuring and determine how repeated machine washing affects the measured impedance and surface resistance of the sample electrodes. The aim was to manufacture electrodes that could be used for the measurement of ECG. Skin friendly, metal sheet type, electrodes could be a solution.Design/methodology/approachIn addition to two conventional electrodes already used in heart rate belts, the authors prepared and tested three different sheet metal electrodes. Three 20 mm diameter electrodes were manufactured from the following materials: silvered knit, conductive polymer, stainless steel, silver and platinum. Electrode Impedance was measured at seven frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, by placing two electrodes face-to-face. Measurements were done on unused electrodes and after multiple machine washes at 40°C.FindingsAnalysis of the measurements indicates that with every material tested the impedances are elevated after repeated washes. All metallic materials have impedances in the range of 0.01 to 4.5Ω. Metal sheet electrodes can be integrated comfortably into the textile and they endure textile maintenance without loss of electrical properties.Practical implicationsMetal sheet electrodes function well in long-term vital signs monitoring, they provide a reliable signal and they are resistant to maintenance. For the reasons described in this research they can be used as a long-term wearable sensor.Originality/valueNovel electrode material for long-term measuring research is important in many disciplines such as healthcare and apparel manufacturing. These findings suggest that pure metal electrodes are better than conductive textiles in long-term measuring.

KW - Electrode

KW - ECG

KW - Wearable

KW - washing

KW - Steel

U2 - 10.1108/RJTA-04-2016-0007

DO - 10.1108/RJTA-04-2016-0007

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 59

EP - 71

JO - Research Journal of Textile and Apparel

JF - Research Journal of Textile and Apparel

SN - 1560-6074

IS - 1

ER -