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The formation and characterization of fretting-induced degradation layers using quenched and tempered steel

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)258-267
Number of pages10
JournalTribology International
Early online date14 Sep 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Fretting movement is dangerous for machines, because it can cause cracking and surface degradation. The aim of this work was to characterize fretting-induced material degradation in large flat-on-flat contacts without edge effects in a sliding direction using quenched and tempered steel 34CrNiMo6. The focus was on the adhesive contact spots, which were formed under a wide variety of operating conditions. Characterization methods were optical microscopy, Vickers hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy. Three different degradation areas were observed: a general deformation layer, a tribologically transformed structure and a third body layer. All the degradation phases have high hardness and low ductility compared to the base material. The formation and behavior of the degradation layers in different operating conditions were discussed.


  • Adhesion, Fretting, Friction, Microscopy

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Field of science, Statistics Finland

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