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The inclination of mandibular incisors revisited

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-119
Number of pages11
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Objective: To reassess the inclination of lower incisors and evaluate possible associations with gender, age, symphyseal parameters, and skeletal pattern. Materials and Methods: Twelve hundred and seventy-two (605 females, 667 males) cephalograms of untreated subjects of a craniofacial growth study (age: 8-16 years) were evaluated. Correlations between the angulation of the lower incisors and age, symphyseal distances (height, width, and depth), symphyseal ratios (height-width, height-depth), and skeletal angles (divergence of the jaws and gonial angle) were investigated for all ages separately and for both sexes independently. Results: The inclination of lower incisors increased over age (8 years: girls = 93.9° [95% CI, 92.3°-95.7°], boys = 93.3° [95% CI, 91.8°-94.9°]; 16 years: girls = 96.1° [95% CI, 94.1°-98.2°], boys = 97.1° [95% CI, 95.6°-98.6°]). Inclination of lower incisors correlated with the divergence of the jaws for all ages significantly or highly significantly, except for boys and girls 9 years of age and girls 11 and 12 years of age, for which only a tendency was observed. Similarly, a strong correlation to gonial angle could be observed. No correlation could be found between the inclination of lower incisors and any symphyseal parameters (absolute measurements and ratios), except for symphyseal depth. Conclusion: Lower incisor inclination is linked to the subject's sex, age, and skeletal pattern. It is not associated with symphyseal dimensions, except symphyseal depth. Factors related to natural inclination of lower incisors should be respected when establishing a treatment plan.

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Cephalometry, Inclination, Lower incisor