Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Towards the EU emissions targets of 2050: optimal energy renovation measures of Finnish apartment buildings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
Issue number7
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Member countries of the European Union have released targets to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 80% by the year 2050. Energy use in buildings is a major source of these emissions, which is why this study focused on the cost-optimal renovation of Finnish apartment buildings. Apartment buildings from four different construction years (pre-1976, 1976–2002, 2003–2009 and post-2010) were modelled, using three different heating systems: district heating, ground-source heat pump and exhaust air heat pump. Multi-objective optimisation was utilised to find the most cost-effective energy renovation measures. Most cost-effective renovation measures were ground-source heat pumps, demand-based ventilation and solar electricity. Additional thermal insulation of walls was usually too expensive. By performing only the cost-effective renovations, the emissions could be reduced by 80%, 82%, 69% and 68%, from the oldest to the newest buildings, respectively. This could be done with the initial investment cost of 296, 235, 115 and 104 €/m2, respectively.


  • apartment building, Cost-optimal renovation, energy performance, greenhouse gas emissions, multi-objective optimisation

Publication forum classification