Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Article number20170033
JournalInterface Focus
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Apr 2018
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.


  • Hyperspectral, Incidence angle, Laser scanning, Vegetation

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland

Downloads statistics

No data available