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Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects

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Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects. / Kaasalainen, Sanna; Åkerblom, Markku; Nevalainen, Olli; Hakala, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Mikko.

In: Interface Focus, Vol. 8, No. 2, 20170033, 06.04.2018.

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Kaasalainen, Sanna ; Åkerblom, Markku ; Nevalainen, Olli ; Hakala, Teemu ; Kaasalainen, Mikko. / Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects. In: Interface Focus. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 2.

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@article{4da6716e05bb4a15a8706c90d478bc9e,
title = "Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects",
abstract = "Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.",
keywords = "Hyperspectral, Incidence angle, Laser scanning, Vegetation",
author = "Sanna Kaasalainen and Markku {\AA}kerblom and Olli Nevalainen and Teemu Hakala and Mikko Kaasalainen",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1098/rsfs.2017.0033",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Interface Focus",
issn = "2042-8898",
publisher = "Royal Society Publishing",
number = "2",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects

AU - Kaasalainen, Sanna

AU - Åkerblom, Markku

AU - Nevalainen, Olli

AU - Hakala, Teemu

AU - Kaasalainen, Mikko

PY - 2018/4/6

Y1 - 2018/4/6

N2 - Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.

AB - Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.

KW - Hyperspectral

KW - Incidence angle

KW - Laser scanning

KW - Vegetation

U2 - 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0033

DO - 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0033

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Interface Focus

JF - Interface Focus

SN - 2042-8898

IS - 2

M1 - 20170033

ER -