Indoor hygrothermal loads for the deterministic and stochastic design of the building envelope for dwellings in cold climates
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|Julkaisu||Journal of Building Physics|
|Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä||12 heinäkuuta 2017|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2018|
In this study, several years of field measurements of indoor hygrothermal loads in 237 dwelling units are analysed. Moisture excess is calculated from hourly values of temperature, and relative humidity measured both indoors and outdoors. Air change rate and moisture production in bedrooms are calculated on the basis of carbon dioxide measurements. It is found that indoor temperature profiles differ depending on whether a building has central heating, a stove or combined heating system. The determined average moisture excess value, 2.8 g/m3 with a standard deviation of 1.6 g/m3 for cold periods, can be used in stochastic calculations. Critical values for moisture excess at the 90th percentile, ranging from 3–8 g/m3, depending upon occupancy rates, can be used in the deterministic analysis. Averages and weekly maxima of moisture excess in the study are reported at different percentiles. Considerable deviations from the EN ISO 13788 standard are discovered, concerning the breaking point depending on outdoor temperature and moisture excess during the summer. The average and critical moisture production in bedroom is presented and insufficient ventilation determined based on measurements. During the heating period, the air change rate is relatively stable while moisture production levels increase along with the dropping outdoor temperature. Two indoor temperatures and three humidity models with different levels of detail and influencing factors are proposed. Temperature and humidity loads derived using the proposed models can be used to determine the indoor hygrothermal boundary conditions for the building envelope of dwellings in cold climates.