I/Q Imbalance in Multiantenna Systems: Modeling, Analysis and RF-Aware Digital Beamforming
|Kustantaja||Tampere University of Technology|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 13 tammikuuta 2017|
|Nimi||Tampere University of Technology. Publication|
In this thesis, we consider multiantenna devices where the associated transceiver chains are implemented in such a way that the requirements above can be met. In particular, we focus on the direct-conversion transceiver principle which is seen as a promising radio architecture for multiantenna systems due to its low costs, small size, low power consumption and good ﬂexibility. Whereas these aspects are very promising, direct-conversion transceivers have also some disadvantages and are vulnerable to certain imperfections in the analog radio frequency (RF) electronics in particular. Since the effects of these imperfections usually get even worse when optimizing costs of the devices, the scope of the thesis is on the effects and mitigation of one of the most severe RF imperfection, namely in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) imbalance.
Contributions of the thesis can be split into two main themes. First of them is multiantenna narrowband beamforming under transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) I/Q imbalances. We start by creating a model for the signals at the TX and RX, both under I/Q imbalances. Based on these models we derive analytical expressions for the antenna array radiation patterns and notice that I/Q imbalance distorts not only the signals but also the radiation characteristics of the array. After that, stemming from the nature of the distortion, we utilize widely-linear (WL) processing, where the signals and their complex conjugates are processed jointly, for the beamforming task under I/Q imbalance. Such WL processing with different kind of statistical and adaptive beamforming algorithms is ﬁnally shown to provide a ﬂexible operation as well as distortion-free signals and radiation patterns when being under various I/Q imbalance schemes.
The second theme extends the work to wideband systems utilizing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based waveforms. The focus is on uplink communications and BS RX processing in a multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) scheme where spatial UE multiplexing is applied and further UE multiplexing takes place in frequency domain through the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) principle. Moreover, we include the effects of external co-channel interference into our analysis in order to model the challenges in heterogeneous networks. We formulate a ﬂexible signal model for a generic uplink scheme where I/Q imbalance occurs on both TX and RX sides. Based on the model, we analyze the signal distortion in frequency domain and develop augmented RX processing methods which process signals at mirror subcarrier pairs jointly. Additionally, the proposed augmented methods are numerically shown to outperform corresponding per-subcarrier method in terms of the instantaneous signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR). Finally, we address some practical aspects and conclude that the augmented processing principle is a promising tool for RX processing in multiantenna wideband systems under I/Q imbalance.
The thesis provides important insight for development of future radio networks. In particular, the results can be used as such for implementing digital signal processing (DSP)-based RF impairment mitigation in real world transceivers. Moreover, the results can be used as a starting point for future research concerning, e.g., joint effects of multiple RF impairments and their mitigation in multiantenna systems. Overall, this thesis and the associated publications can help the communications society to reach the ambitious aim of ﬂexible, low-cost and high performance radio networks in the future.