TUTCRIS - Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto


Joukkoliikenteen edistämiskeinoja - eurooppalaisia esimerkkejä



Käyttöönottava elinLiikennevirasto
ISBN (elektroninen) 978-952-255-142-9
TilaJulkaistu - 2012
OKM-julkaisutyyppiD4 Julkaistu kehittämis- tai tutkimusraportti taikka -selvitys


NimiLiikenneviraston tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä


In the future, steps must be taken to markedly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
other problems caused by traffic. Public transport plays a major role in achieving
targets set for this. Promotion of public transport is a long-term process with various
components. The world contains many good examples of approaches to promoting
public transport based, for example, on regional organisation of public transport,
attractive park-and-ride facilities, integrated ticketing systems, and branding of
relevant services. Many of these examples are also easily applicable to Finland. This
research paper considers promotional tools, through a few European examples.

Prompted by the oil crisis of the early 1970s, as a tool for financing public transport
the State of France gave its cities the right to collect a public transport tax from
enterprises, amounting to 0.55–2.00 per cent of the company’s payroll expenses. By
means of tax revenue ring-fenced for public transport, the state sought to stimulate
investment in public transport. In this way it promoted the rapid development of
public transport in large municipal areas in particular. This public transport tax now
accounts for around 40–45 per cent of overall funding of public transport. Although
the tax has attracted some criticism from the business world, from the state and
municipality perspective it is indispensable to financing public transport and its

In France, the state requires that each municipal area with more than 100,000
inhabitants draw up a plan for sustainable urban traffic, closely tied to environmental
and emission-based targets. The primary aim of this is to reduce car traffic. Known as
PDUs (Plans de Déplacements Urbains), these plans have had a major impact on the
traffic policy of French cities. Growth in car traffic has been curbed, whereas use of
public transport has substantially increased. Growth in overall passenger traffic
mileage has also been successfully curbed.

Switzerland applies an integrated ticket system, in which the passenger can buy a
single ticket for the entire travel chain, even if he or she uses several transport
operators and modes of public transport during a single journey. Approximately half
of the Swiss people use public transport and a total of almost three million have travel
cards based on the integrated ticket system. Transport operators find it profitable to
belong to the ticket system.

France has achieved good results by demanding effective and practical planning
methods and providing financing tools. Examples from Switzerland show that
development of joint ticketing systems and integrated ticket products is an important
cornerstone in the provision of customer-oriented public transport. In the European
advances examined for the purposes of this study, the underlying idea seems to be
strong customer and resident-orientation. These steps forward are good examples of
how the state can take the lead in promoting public transport.