Long-term sensor measurements of lung deposited surface area of particulate matter emitted from local vehicular and residential wood combustion sources
Tutkimustuotos › › vertaisarvioitu
|Julkaisu||Aerosol Science and Technology|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 9 lokakuuta 2019|
Lung deposited surface area (LDSA) is a relatively new metric that has been argued to be more accurate at predicting health effects from aerosol exposure. For typical atmospheric aerosol, the LDSA concentration depends mainly on the concentration of ultrafine particles (e.g. vehicular exhaust emissions and residential wood combustion) and therefore optical methods cannot be used to measure and quantify it. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe typical characteristics of LDSA under different urban environments and evaluate how a diffusion charging-based Pegasor AQ Urban sensor (Pegasor Ltd., Finland) can be used as an alternative to optical sensors when assessing local combustion emissions and respective LDSA concentrations. Long-term (12?months) sensor measurements of LDSA were carried out at three distinctly different measurement sites (four sensor nodes) in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. The sites were affected mainly by vehicular exhaust emission (street canyon and urban background stations) and by residential wood combustion (two detached housing area stations). The results showed that the accuracy of the AQ Urban was good (R-2 = 0.90) for the measurement of LDSA when compared to differential mobility particle sizer. The mean concentrations of LDSA were more than twice as high at the street canyon (mean 22 ?m(2) cm(?3)) site when compared to the urban background site (mean 9.4 ?m(2) cm(?3)). In the detached housing area, the mean concentrations were 12 ?m(2) cm(?3), and wood combustion typically caused high LDSA peaks in the evenings. High correlations and similar diurnal cycles were observed for the LDSA and black carbon at street canyon and urban background stations. The utilization of a small-scale sensor network (four nodes) showed that the cross-station variability in hourly LDSA concentrations was significant in every site, even within the same detached housing area (distance between the two sites ?670?m).