TUTCRIS - Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto

TUTCRIS

On-Board Electronic Control Systems of Future Automated Heavy Machinery

Tutkimustuotos

Yksityiskohdat

AlkuperäiskieliEnglanti
KustantajaTampere University of Technology
Sivumäärä148
ISBN (elektroninen)978-952-15-3649-6
ISBN (painettu)978-952-15-3636-6
TilaJulkaistu - 4 joulukuuta 2015
OKM-julkaisutyyppiG4 Monografiaväitöskirja

Julkaisusarja

NimiTampere University of Technology. Publication
KustantajaTampere University of Technology
Vuosikerta1352
ISSN (painettu)1459-2045

Tiivistelmä

The level of automation and wireless communication has increased in heavy machinery recently. This requires utilizing new devices and communication solutions in heavy machinery applications which involve demanding operating conditions and challenging life-cycle management. Therefore, the applied devices have to be robust and hardware architectures flexible, consisting of generic modules. In research and development projects devices that have various communication interfaces and insufficient mechanical and electrical robustness need to be applied. Although this thesis has its main focus on machines utilized as research platforms, many of the challenges are similar with commercial machines.

The applicability of typical solutions for data transfer is discussed. Controller area network with a standardized higher level protocol is proposed to be applied where data signalling rates above 1 Mb/s are not required. The main benefits are the availability of robust, generic devices and well-established software tools for configuration management. Ethernet can be utilized to network equipment with high data rates, typically used for perception. Although deterministic industrial Ethernet protocols would fulfil most requirements, the conventional internet protocol suite is likely to be applied due to device availability.

Sometimes sensors and other devices without a suitable communication interface need to be applied. In addition, device-related real-time processing or accurate synchronization of hardware signals may be required. A small circuit board with a microcontroller can be utilized as a generic embedded module for building robust, small and cost-efficient prototype devices that have a controller area network interface. Although various microcontroller boards are commercially available, designing one for heavy machinery applications, in particular, has benefits in robustness, size, interfaces, and flexible software development. The design of such a generic embedded module is presented.

The device-specific challenges of building an automated machine are discussed. Unexpected switch-off of embedded computers has to be prevented by the control system to avoid file system errors. Moreover, the control system has to protect the batteries against deep discharge when the engine is not running. With many devices, protective enclosures with heating or cooling are required.

The electronic control systems of two automated machines utilized as research platforms are presented and discussed as examples. The hardware architectures of the control systems are presented, following the proposed communication solutions as far as is feasible. Several applications of the generic embedded module within the control systems are described. Several research topics have been covered utilizing the automated machines. In this thesis, a cost-efficient operator-assisting functionality of an excavator is presented and discussed in detail.

The results of this thesis give not only research institutes but also machine manufacturers and their subcontractors an opportunity to streamline the prototyping of automated heavy machinery.

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