Pedestrian Counting With Back-Propagated Information and Target Drift Remedy
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|Julkaisu||IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2017|
Pedestrian density is one of the important factors in designing visual surveillance and intelligent transportation systems, but it is challenging to obtain accurate and robust estimates because of both inconsistent crowd patterns in the scenes and target drift caused by imbalanced data distribution. Most of existing global regression frameworks focus on the former challenge to improve the robustness of regression learning, but very few work concerns on mitigating the suffering from the latter one. This paper proposes a novel counting-by-regression framework to utilize the importance of training samples to improve the robustness against inconsistent feature-target relationship based on a recently-proposed learning paradigm--learning with privileged information. To this end, the concept of back-propagation is for the first time considered to select more informative samples contributed to robust fitting performance. Moreover, the direction of target drift along the continuously-changing target dimension is discovered by learning local classifiers under different situation of pedestrian density, which can thus be exploited in our algorithm to further boost the performance. Experimental evaluation on the public UCSD and shopping Mall benchmarks verifies that our approach significantly beats the state-of-the-art counting-by-regression frameworks.