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Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

Tutkimustuotosvertaisarvioitu

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Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions. / Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob; Saari, Sampo; Veijalainen, Anna Maria; Pasanen, Pertti; Keskinen, Jorma; Leskinen, Jari T T; Reponen, Tiina.

julkaisussa: Science of the Total Environment, Vuosikerta 547, 15.03.2016, s. 234-243.

Tutkimustuotosvertaisarvioitu

Harvard

Mensah-Attipoe, J, Saari, S, Veijalainen, AM, Pasanen, P, Keskinen, J, Leskinen, JTT & Reponen, T 2016, 'Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions', Science of the Total Environment, Vuosikerta. 547, Sivut 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095

APA

Mensah-Attipoe, J., Saari, S., Veijalainen, A. M., Pasanen, P., Keskinen, J., Leskinen, J. T. T., & Reponen, T. (2016). Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions. Science of the Total Environment, 547, 234-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095

Vancouver

Mensah-Attipoe J, Saari S, Veijalainen AM, Pasanen P, Keskinen J, Leskinen JTT et al. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions. Science of the Total Environment. 2016 maalis 15;547:234-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095

Author

Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob ; Saari, Sampo ; Veijalainen, Anna Maria ; Pasanen, Pertti ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Leskinen, Jari T T ; Reponen, Tiina. / Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions. Julkaisussa: Science of the Total Environment. 2016 ; Vuosikerta 547. Sivut 234-243.

Bibtex - Lataa

@article{5a69ff2250684a819dbdaa338c7e0673,
title = "Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions",
abstract = "Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi.Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27m/s). Released spores (optical size, dp≥0.8μm) and fragments (dp≤0.8μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment-spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P.Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based on elemental composition, most fragments originated from fungi, but also fragments from growth material were detected.",
keywords = "Air velocity, Elemental analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fragments, Scanning electron microscope",
author = "Jacob Mensah-Attipoe and Sampo Saari and Veijalainen, {Anna Maria} and Pertti Pasanen and Jorma Keskinen and Leskinen, {Jari T T} and Tiina Reponen",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095",
language = "English",
volume = "547",
pages = "234--243",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V.",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Lataa

TY - JOUR

T1 - Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

AU - Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob

AU - Saari, Sampo

AU - Veijalainen, Anna Maria

AU - Pasanen, Pertti

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Leskinen, Jari T T

AU - Reponen, Tiina

PY - 2016/3/15

Y1 - 2016/3/15

N2 - Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi.Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27m/s). Released spores (optical size, dp≥0.8μm) and fragments (dp≤0.8μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment-spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P.Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based on elemental composition, most fragments originated from fungi, but also fragments from growth material were detected.

AB - Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi.Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27m/s). Released spores (optical size, dp≥0.8μm) and fragments (dp≤0.8μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment-spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P.Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based on elemental composition, most fragments originated from fungi, but also fragments from growth material were detected.

KW - Air velocity

KW - Elemental analysis

KW - Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

KW - Fragments

KW - Scanning electron microscope

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.095

M3 - Article

VL - 547

SP - 234

EP - 243

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -