TUTCRIS - Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto


Spodumene tailings for porcelain and structural materials: Effect of temperature (1050–1200 °C) on the sintering and properties



JulkaisuMinerals Engineering
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaHyväksytty/In press - 2019
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli


The use of industrial by-products as substitute to conventional natural resources in ceramic production is of interest from an environment preservation and solid wastes management. This paper deals with the recycling of tailings from spodumene concentration during lithium production (Quartz Feldspar Sand; QFS), for the production of porcelain and structural materials. The QFS obtained from spodumene processing consisted mainly of quartz, albite, microcline with traces of muscovite. Mixtures of QFS and standard porcelain ingredients were sintered at 1050–1200 °C at 50 °C intervals and their properties were compared with a conventional porcelain composition prepared under the same conditions. Phase composition was assessed by XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement. Tests such as water absorption, apparent density, sintering shrinkage, compressive and flexural strength were used for physical comparison. The results showed that higher densification was achieved at 1200 °C, with a drastic reduction of water absorption below 1%. A compressive strength of 40 MPa was obtained at 1050 °C in the composition made of 50 wt% QFS and 50 wt% kaolin, increasing to 85 MPa at 1100 °C. The strength increase was attributed to better glassy phase formation and mullite growth. The QFS was found to contain no hazardous elements and showed promising sintering results, indicating its high suitability to substitute conventional resources in the production of ceramic materials.