Tarve, tottumukset, tekniikka ja talous – ilmastonmuutoksen hillinnän toimenpiteet liikenteessä
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2015|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||D4 Julkaistu kehittämis- tai tutkimusraportti taikka -selvitys|
The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from Finnish transport sector were 12,0 Mt in 2013, which is about
23% of total CO2 emissions in Finland. Transport sector’s share of emissions has grown during last few
years as the emissions from industry and energy production have decreased. Hence, the development of
transport emissions is increasingly important when the possibilities to achieve the greenhouse gas
reduction targets are evaluated in Finland. Transport CO2 emissions should be decreased from the 1990
level by at least 40% by 2030 and 80% by 2050.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions from transport may grow
faster than on any other sector without aggressive and sustained emission reduction measures. Also in
Finland the Finnish Transport Agency forecasts car transport to grow significantly by 2050 and even
without this growth emission reduction in transport is not fast enough to mitigate climate change.
According to the IPCC avoiding journeys, modal shift, improvements in vehicle technology, low-carbon
fuels, infrastructure investments and densifying urban landscapes effectively combined enable significant
emission reductions. A range of strong and mutually-supportive policies are needed to support these
measures in both short- and long-term.
Cost efficiency of measure packages
The most cost efficient measure for the society is to support a shift from private car use to social car use
through increasing car-sharing and ride-sharing (see Table below). Ride-sharing increases the energy
efficiency of cars without any additional costs and car-sharing reduces the car fleet thus reducing the
purchase costs and fixed costs of cars. Such transformation towards Mobility as a Service -thinking
requires both technological innovations and changes to legislation and market regulation.
Measures affecting the development of urban form are also very cost efficient as costs are mostly only
caused by dissemination of best practices. Developing walking and cycling infrastructure affecting the
modal split may also be very cost efficient because of the related health benefits. Rail infrastructure
projects dominate the development of public transport and while those are expensive, they also improve
transport safety. Developing urban is closely related to infrastructure projects and the changes take time,
so the political guidance must be persevering.
Technological measures induce costs to society because both reducing the energy consumption of cars
and uptake of alternative fuels and vehicles require high investments. However, great emission
reductions may be achieved through technological measures and the emission reduction targets can be
achieved through only technological measures. This would require rapid uptake of alternative energy
vehicles and the society would not receive the great benefits, such as health benefits, energy savings
and fixed car cost savings, associated with measures affecting urban form, modla split and social car use.