## Technical Note: Noise models for virtual clinical trials of digital breast tomosynthesis

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**Technical Note : Noise models for virtual clinical trials of digital breast tomosynthesis.** / Borges, Lucas R.; Barufaldi, Bruno; Caron, Renato F.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Foi, Alessandro; Maidment, Andrew D.A.; Vieira, Marcelo A.C.

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*Medical Physics*, Vuosikerta. 46, Nro 6, Sivut 2683-2689. https://doi.org/10.1002/mp.13534

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*Medical Physics*,

*46*(6), 2683-2689. https://doi.org/10.1002/mp.13534

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Technical Note

T2 - Noise models for virtual clinical trials of digital breast tomosynthesis

AU - Borges, Lucas R.

AU - Barufaldi, Bruno

AU - Caron, Renato F.

AU - Bakic, Predrag R.

AU - Foi, Alessandro

AU - Maidment, Andrew D.A.

AU - Vieira, Marcelo A.C.

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Purpose: To investigate the use of an affine-variance noise model, with correlated quantum noise and spatially dependent quantum gain, for the simulation of noise in virtual clinical trials (VCT) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: Two distinct technologies were considered: an amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detector with direct conversion and a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) detector with indirect conversion. A VCT framework was used to generate noise-free projections of a uniform three-dimensional simulated phantom, whose geometry and absorption match those of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) uniform physical phantom. The noise model was then used to generate noisy observations from the simulated noise-free data, while two clinically available DBT units were used to acquire projections of the PMMA physical phantom. Real and simulated projections were then compared using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS). Results: Simulated images reported errors smaller than 4.4% and 7.0% in terms of SNR and NNPS, respectively. These errors are within the expected variation between two clinical units of the same model. The errors increase to 65.8% if uncorrelated models are adopted for the simulation of systems featuring indirect detection. The assumption of spatially independent quantum gain generates errors of 11.2%. Conclusions: The investigated noise model can be used to accurately reproduce the noise found in clinical DBT. The assumption of uncorrelated noise may be adopted if the system features a direct detector with minimal pixel crosstalk.

AB - Purpose: To investigate the use of an affine-variance noise model, with correlated quantum noise and spatially dependent quantum gain, for the simulation of noise in virtual clinical trials (VCT) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: Two distinct technologies were considered: an amorphous-selenium (a-Se) detector with direct conversion and a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) detector with indirect conversion. A VCT framework was used to generate noise-free projections of a uniform three-dimensional simulated phantom, whose geometry and absorption match those of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) uniform physical phantom. The noise model was then used to generate noisy observations from the simulated noise-free data, while two clinically available DBT units were used to acquire projections of the PMMA physical phantom. Real and simulated projections were then compared using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS). Results: Simulated images reported errors smaller than 4.4% and 7.0% in terms of SNR and NNPS, respectively. These errors are within the expected variation between two clinical units of the same model. The errors increase to 65.8% if uncorrelated models are adopted for the simulation of systems featuring indirect detection. The assumption of spatially independent quantum gain generates errors of 11.2%. Conclusions: The investigated noise model can be used to accurately reproduce the noise found in clinical DBT. The assumption of uncorrelated noise may be adopted if the system features a direct detector with minimal pixel crosstalk.

KW - digital breast tomosynthesis

KW - electronic noise

KW - noise simulation

KW - quantum noise

KW - virtual clinical trials

U2 - 10.1002/mp.13534

DO - 10.1002/mp.13534

M3 - Article

VL - 46

SP - 2683

EP - 2689

JO - Medical Physics

JF - Medical Physics

SN - 0094-2405

IS - 6

ER -